Truck Front Wheel Bearings Structure
Truck front wheel bearings (for example, 527/522 bearing，HM518445-HM518410 , HM218248/10)are rolling bearings. The basic structure of the rolling bearings is as below photo.
The front wheel assembly of the truck contains inner and outer 2 sets bearings.
The bearings are with grease lubrication.
According to the performance and design principles, the bearings are taper roller bearings.
Taper roller bearing basic structure is composed of 4 parts: outer ring, inner ring, rolling element and cage.
The outer ring and the inner ring are assembled with the journal and the bearing seat respectively. Usually the outer ring is fixed and the inner ring rotates with the journal.
The rolling elements run on the raceways of the inner and outer rings.
The cage separates the rolling elements evenly in order to avoid wear increasing by avoiding direct contact between adjacent rolling elements.
The Cause of Front Wheel Bearings Damage
1. Operation Reasons
The loading quality of the truck is designed to be 260 tons. Due to heavy production tasks and limited operator skills, truck overloads frequently occur.
This will increase the load-bearing capacity of the truck’s front wheels and the pressure of the front wheel bearings.
As a result, the front wheel bearings are easier to broken.
②Lack of operational skills
When the truck is running at high speed, the brake frequency will increase and the brake will be used more urgently.
In this way, the truck’s own weight and load will be mostly concentrated on the front axle due to the impact force, and the impact force on the front axle will mainly act on the front wheels. As a consequence, such a large impact force will inevitably aggravate the damage of the bearing, thereby greatly reducing the service life of the bearing.
In the open-pit mining area, heavy-duty truck operators use 4 shifts and 3 shifts manufacturing operations, so continuous operations are more frequent.
When a shift is over, the truck will be handed over to the next shift operator to work if there is no fault.
This will cause the truck to dissipate incompletely, stay in a high temperature state for a long time, and the temperature of the front wheel bearing will also increase.
As a result, the lubricating performance of the grease will reduce, thereby aggravating the wear of the front wheel bearings.
2. Bearing Quality Problem
①The quality of the bearing material is not high
In terms of the quality of the bearing material itself, there are cracks, spots and burrs on the the surface of some bearings.
These defects are the main causes of bearing damage.
Truck production tasks are heavy. Due to the large temperature difference in the working environment, the viscosity of the grease also changes, so that the grease does not have the effect of high temperature and high pressure resistance. The viscosity of the grease will decrease and become diluted for a long time.
Therefore, it will cause a large loss of grease, which seriously affects the lubrication efficiency of the bearing and eventually increases the wear of the bearing.
As a result, bearing failure will happen.
3. Maintenance Skill Factor
①Improper use of liquid nitrogen
Before installing the bearing, it is necessary to soak the bearing sleeve with liquid nitrogen. The purpose is to make the bearing sleeve cold shrink and easy to install.
If the immersion time is short, the bearing cannot be installed correctly.
Similarly, if the immersion time is long, the toughness of the bearing sleeve will be reduce.
If the toughness is reduce, the service life of the bearing sleeve will be decrease as well, which will seriously affect the use of the bearing.
②Improper measuring method of gap/internal play
After fixing the bearing, users should measure the gap between the bearing and the pressure plate.
But sometimes in the process of measurement, personnel neglect the accuracy of the vernier caliper, and the vernier caliper does not return to zero, which increases the measured gap.
This will affect the service life of the bearing and the bearings are easy to borke.
③Inappropriate pads adjustment
Sometimes maintenance personnel do not add adjustment pads according to the specified measurement values, but add them according to their own experience.
This will eventually lead to more or less adjustment pads, which affects the use of the bearing.
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